2 Project Justification and Rationale 2.1 Justification 2.1.1 Description of KALRO and Past EU research support to KALRO The Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research (KALR) Act, No.17 of 2013 led to the establishment of the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO. The mandate of KALRO is to undertake, streamline, coordinate and regulate all aspects of research in agriculture and livestock development, and promote the application of the research findings, technologies and innovations. With its Vision on “Excellence in agricultural and livestock research towards transformed livelihoods” and Mission “To conduct agricultural research through application of science, technology and innovation to catalyse sustainable growth and development in agriculture and livestock Product Value Chains”. Since 2012 KALRO has worked along value chains to implement its research agenda. KALRO's strategy of working with partners, particularly in dissemination of research findings, has resulted in improved adoption of new technologies. Market and demand-led research has produced the biggest successes in the recent partnership (i.e. the development of Gadam sorghum for the brewing industry and thermostable Newcastle vaccine for indigenous chicken). The EU partnership with KALRO through the grant modality has been successful under 10th EDF KRDP and is well regarded by GoK. The ASAL APRP (FED 2012/291-241) reached over 500,000 farmers who are deriving economic benefits from adoption of KALRO technologies. Among the key achievements of the project were development and release of 9 new high yielding crop varieties adapted to the ASALs, collection and characterization of range grass ecotypes for improved variety development; identification of a thermostable Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) vaccine candidate for small ruminants; identification of a vaccine candidates for camel and cattle mastitis; development of a Penside diagnostic Kit for subclinical mastitis; registration of improved indigenous chicken breed; licensing of KALRO Naivasha hatchery and improvement of KALRO capacity for ASAL research. The project stepped up its research efforts not only to develop technologies to mitigate against the problems encountered in managing the ASALS but also developed a web based Knowledge-Hub (https://www.asalkhub.kalro.org) and three mobile apps for chicken farming, dryland crops, and range pasture seeds to enhance technology transfer. During the project period, 15,00o copies of assorted farmer extension leaflets; 1000 copies of assorted manuals; 400 copies of conference and workshop proceedings and 600 copies of video documentaries were produced and published. Over 900 downloads have been recorded on the knowledge platforms developed by the project. 2.1.2 Climate Smart Agricultural Productivity Project (CS APP) objectives and expected results KALRO as the grant beneficiary for this Action has a legal de jure monopoly , as indicated in the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Act (17/2013), to undertake research in Kenya and hence has been granted a Direct award vide prior approval (Deviation & Prior Approval 2018/ 001-915) . KALRO will implement, the EU supported Climate Smart Agricultural Productivity Project (CS APP) whose overall objective is “productive, climate change adapted and market integrated small holder agriculture aiming to reduce the national food deficit and improve agriculture sector competitiveness strengthened”. The project specific objective is “climate change adapted and innovative agricultural technologies with potential for market integration developed and adopted” The CS APP is an integral part of the overall , Kenya-(AgriFI) "Support to productive, adapted and market integrated smallholder agriculture, including a contribution to the Africa Investment Facility" (KE/FED/037-928) programme with an Overall Objective ; Institutions and stakeholders in the agriculture sector develop, adjust and implement Disaster Risk Reduction strategies involving a multi-sectoral approach to nutrition, agriculture productivity integrating market linkages, diversification of livelihood sources as well as supporting climate proof investments at community and at county levels; and Specific Objective: Productive, climate change adapted and market integrated smallholder agriculture aiming to reduce the national food deficit and improve agriculture sector competitiveness is strengthened. KALRO is responsible for Result 1: Climate change adapted and innovative agricultural technologies with potential for market integration developed and adopted. The CS APP will support implementation of activities and will target at achieving the following sub-results areas: Result area 1. (a): Research in new drought resistant and more yielding climate smart technologies. This will address specific productivity constraints facing farmers and whose solution will unlock farmer integration in commodity markets Result area 1. (b): Disseminate existing market-linked technologies research for application. This will cover upscaling of new and existing technologies through public-private partnerships approach via competitive sub-grants. The key focus will be increased adoption of technologies thus enabling farmers to take full advantage and integration into commodity value chains markets. 2.2 Beneficiaries, stakeholders and geographical scope The primary beneficiaries of this project are an estimated 250,000 small-holder farmers, pastoralists and their groups that are occasional market players with potential to become full players in specific value chains. The agribusiness actors are the strategic partners enabling smallholders’ integration into commercial farming and promote specific value chains. Key stakeholders are the relevant Sector Ministries in National and County Governments, NGOs, Producer and Marketing Associations and Faith Based Organizations involved in the promoting rural development. Other stakeholders are donor assisted programmes and researchers. The project will be implemented nationally.